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© 2011 California County Superintendents Educational Services Association K8 California’s
Common Core Standards Parent Handbook© 2011 California County Superintendents Educational Services Association California County Superintendents Educational Services Association © 2011 California County Superintendents Educational Services Association Financial Support Provided By The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation Prepared By: Contributions by Patricia Duckhorn, Tamara Wilson, Fran Gibson, Kathy Curl, Sue Stickel, California State PTA and Ventura County Office of Education © 2011 California County Superintendents Educational Services Association Contents Introduction .......................................................................................................... 4 Mathematics Mathematics – Standards for Mathematical Practice ................................. 6 Grade K Overview ..................................................................................... 8 Grade 1 Overview ..................................................................................... 10 Grade 2 Overview ...................................................................................... 12 Grade 3 Overview ...................................................................................... 14 Grade 4 Overview ...................................................................................... 16 Grade 5 Overview ...................................................................................... 18 Grade 6 Overview ...................................................................................... 20 Grade 7 Overview ...................................................................................... 22 Grade 8 Algebra 1 Overview ..................................................................... 25 Grade 8 Overview ...................................................................................... 28 English Language Arts Grade K Overview ..................................................................................... 30 Grade 1 Overview ..................................................................................... 32 Grade 2 Overview ...................................................................................... 33 Grade 3 Overview ...................................................................................... 34 Grade 4 Overview ...................................................................................... 35 Grade 5 Overview ...................................................................................... 36 Grade 6 Overview ...................................................................................... 37 Grade 7 Overview ...................................................................................... 38 Grade 8 Overview ...................................................................................... 39 Common Core Standards Parent Handbook – © 2011 California County Superintendents Educational Services Association 4 Introduction This handbook gives parents an introduction to California’s Common Core Standards and a summary of what students are expected to learn as they advance from kindergarten through grade 8. The standards are designed to reflect the knowledge and skills that our young people need for success in college and careers. A common set of learning goals helps teachers and parents ensure students are challenged and making appropriate progress. Why Common Core Standards? California educators have joined a national movement to adopt common standards and assessments for English language arts and mathematics. Currently, standards for what students should know and be able to do vary among states, as does the difficulty of the assessments used to determine whether students are meeting those standards. Common standards allow for collaboration among states on best practices and professional development. Common learning goals provide a clear vision of what educators and parents in all states should aim for. These learning goals help ensure that students meet college and work expectations, are prepared to succeed in a global economy and society, and are provided with rigorous content and application of higher knowledge thinking. Benchmarked against international standards, the Common Core Standards assist students in their preparation to complete the requirements for enrollment at a California public university. California’s Adoption of Common Core Standards Adopted in California in August 2010, the K12 Common Core State Standards were developed through a stateled effort to establish consistent and clear education standards for English language arts and mathematics. The initiative was launched by and supported by the Council of Chief State School Officers and the National Governors Association. In the Common Core Standard adoption process, California added supporting standards to complete the unique picture necessary for California students. The Common Core also added strength to the existing California standards by including additional standards for vocabulary and new standards for collaborative discussions. Literacy standards that focus on reading and writing instruction during history/social studies, science, and technology also were included. In mathematics, standards were added to demonstrate a stronger emphasis on number sense and algebraic thinking. Implementation of the Common Core in California’s schools will occur in stages over the next few years.Common Core Standards Parent Handbook – © 2011 California County Superintendents Educational Services Association 5 Organization of Standards This handbook organizes information about the standards for English language arts and mathematics for each grade level or subject course from kindergarten through 8th grade. Each grade level provides a content overview and a summary of skills developed at that level. Additional information about grades 912 will be provided at a later date. In English language arts, California Common Core Standards are organized into the following four groups: (1) reading, (2) writing, (3) speaking and listening, and (4) language. Besides outlining mathematics content standards by grade level or course, this handbook also includes a set of behaviors and practices every student should develop which is called The Standards for Mathematical Practice. These practices deepen understanding of mathematics and enhance students’ problem solving abilities. Information about these practices is found on the next page. Common Core Standards Parent Handbook – © 2011 California County Superintendents Educational Services Association 6 Mathematics  Standards for Mathematical Practice The Standards for Mathematical Practice describe behaviors that all students will develop in the Common Core Standards. These practices rest on important “processes and proficiencies” including problem solving, reasoning and proof, communication, representation, and making connections. These practices will allow students to understand and apply mathematics with confidence.
Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
o Find meaning in problems
o Analyze, predict and plan solution pathways
o Verify answers
o Ask themselves the question: “Does this make sense?”
Reason abstractly and quantitatively.
o Make sense of quantities and their relationships in problems
o Create coherent representations of problems
Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.
o Understand and use information to construct arguments
o Make and explore the truth of conjectures
o Justify conclusions and respond to arguments of others
Model with mathematics.
o Apply mathematics to problems in everyday life
o Identify quantities in a practical situation
o Interpret results in the context of the situation and reflect on whether the results make sense
Use appropriate tools strategically.
o Consider the available tools when solving problems Common Core Standards Parent Handbook – © 2011 California County Superintendents Educational Services Association 7
o Are familiar with tools appropriate for their grade or course ( pencil and paper, concrete models, ruler, protractor, calculator, spreadsheet, computer programs, digital content located on a website, and other technological tools)
Be precise.
o Communicate precisely to others
o Use clear definitions, state the meaning of symbols and are careful about specifying units of measure and labeling axes
o Calculate accurately and efficiently
Look for and make use of structure.
o Discern patterns and structures
o Can step back for an overview and shift perspective
o See complicated things as single objects or as being composed of several objects
Look for and identify ways to create shortcuts when doing problems.
o When calculations are repeated, look for general methods, patterns and shortcuts
o Be able to evaluate whether an answer makes sense Common Core Standards Parent Handbook – © 2011 California County Superintendents Educational Services Association 8 Grade K Overview  Mathematics Kindergarten students learn to count to 100 and write numbers to 20. Attention is given to numbers 1120 where emphasis is placed on tens and ones building a foundation for place value understanding. Beginning addition and subtraction starts in kindergarten. Students sort and classify groups of objects and identify basic shapes.
Know number names and be able to count to 100
Write numbers 0 – 20
Learn about numbers 1120, with tens and ones
Count objects to tell the number of things in a group up to 20
Compare numbers and groups
Understand that addition is putting together groups and adding to groups
Understand that subtraction is taking apart groups and taking from groups
Fluently add and subtract within 5
Understand concepts of time (morning, afternoon, evening, etc.)
Know about the tools that measure time (clock, calendar, etc.)
Sort objects into groups Common Core Standards Parent Handbook – © 2011 California County Superintendents Educational Services Association 9
Identify and describe shapes Common Core Standards Parent Handbook – © 2011 California County Superintendents Educational Services Association 10 Grade 1 Overview  Mathematics First grade students extend their understanding of addition and subtraction by learning to use adding and subtracting to solve word problems within 20. They understand the meaning of the equal sign and are expected to count to 120. Place value knowledge is deepened and students use this knowledge to compare twodigit numbers within 100. Students practice their measurement skills with linear measurement and begin to organize data from surveys. Students also tell and write time in hours and halfhours using analog and digital clocks.
Solve addition and subtraction word problems within 20
Understand the relationship between addition and subtraction
Apply the properties of operations
o Commutative property of addition:
If you know 8 + 3 = 11, then you know 3 + 8 = 11.
o Associative property of addition:
To add 2 + 6 + 4, the second two numbers can be added to make a ten, so 2 + 6 + 4 = 2 + 10 = 12.
Add and subtract within 20
Count to 120, starting at any number
Understand the meaning of the equal sign
Understand place value: ones, tens
Use place value to add and subtract within 100
Measure lengths and tell the measurement in units
Tell and write time
Relate time to events (before/after, shorter/longer, etc.) Common Core Standards Parent Handbook – © 2011 California County Superintendents Educational Services Association 11
Build and talk about a graph
Build, describe, extend, and explain a simple pattern.
Compare shapes by talking about sides, vertices, etc.
Compare twodimensional shapes to threedimensional shapes Common Core Standards Parent Handbook – © 2011 California County Superintendents Educational Services Association 12 Grade 2 Overview  Mathematics Second grade students use addition and subtraction within 100 to solve word problems and are expected to know from memory all sums of two onedigit numbers by the end of second grade. Place value understanding is extended to 1000 and students compare three digit numbers based on their knowledge of hundreds, tens and ones. Second grade students compute with money and learn to estimate and compare lengths using appropriate measurement tools. Second graders refine their understanding of geometry by drawing shapes based on the number of faces and angles.
Solve addition and subtraction word problems within 100
Fluently add and subtract within 20
Know all sums of two onedigit numbers
Work with equal groups and repeated addition to understand multiplication
Work with equal groups and repeated subtraction to understand division
Understand place value: ones, tens, and hundreds
Use place value to add and subtract within 1000
Make reasonable estimates using place value knowledge
Measure, estimate, and compare lengths in standard units
Represent whole number lengths on a number line
Work with time and money
Know relationships of time (minutes in an hour, days in a month, etc.)
Solve word problems using combinations of dollar bills and coins Common Core Standards Parent Handbook – © 2011 California County Superintendents Educational Services Association 13
Collect data, build a graph, and answer questions about the data presented
Recognize shapes, triangles, quadrilaterals, pentagons, hexagons, and cubes
Draw shapes by size of the angles or by the number of equal faces Common Core Standards Parent Handbook – © 2011 California County Superintendents Educational Services Association 14 Grade 3 Overview  Mathematics Third grade students develop an understanding of multiplication and division and learn to fluently multiply and divide within 100. Students are expected to know from memory all products of two onedigit numbers by the end of third grade. Place value understanding is used for multidigit computation and estimation. Fractions are introduced in the third grade with an emphasis on understanding fractions as numbers and their relative size and placement on the number line. In third grade students understand concepts of area and perimeter and solve problems using liquid volume and mass.
Solve multiplication and division word problems
Understand the properties of multiplication
o Commutative property of multiplication:
If you know 6 x 4 = 24, then you know 4 x 6 = 24.
o Associative property of multiplication:
3 x 5 x 2 can be found by 3 x 5 = 15, then 15 x 2 = 30, or by 5 x 2 = 10, then 3 x 10 = 30.
o Distributive property of multiplication:
If 8 x 5 = 40 and 8 x 2 = 16, then 8 x 7 is: 8 x (5 + 2) (8 x 5) + (8 x 2) 40 + 16 = 56.
Fluently multiply and divide within 100
Know all products of two onedigit numbers
Solve word problems with addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division
Understand that multiplication and division are related
Use place value to round numbers and know the value of each digit in a fourdigit number
Use place value understanding to solve multidigit arithmetic Common Core Standards Parent Handbook – © 2011 California County Superintendents Educational Services Association 15
Estimate reasonable answers using place value knowledge
Understand fractions as numbers
Recognize simple equivalent fractions
Compare two fractions with the same numerator or the same denominator
Know that 25 cents is ¼ of a dollar, 50 cents is ½ of a dollar and 75 cents is ¾ of a dollar
Tell and write time to the nearest minute
Estimate and measure time, volume, and weight
Understand area and perimeter
Understand that shapes in different categories can also be in a larger category Common Core Standards Parent Handbook – © 2011 California County Superintendents Educational Services Association 16 Grade 4 Overview  Mathematics Fourth graders use their knowledge of place value to generalize to 1,000,000 and learn to round multidigit whole numbers to any place. They fluently add and subtract using the standard algorithm and multiply and divide with multidigit numbers. Fourth graders extend understanding of fractions to include equivalence, ordering and simple decimal notation. Students measure angles and classify geometric shapes by lines (parallel, perpendicular, etc.) and angles (right, acute, obtuse, etc.).
Use addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division with whole numbers to solve word problems
Learn about factors and multiples
o Factors of 24: 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12
o Multiples of 4: 4, 8, 12, 16, 20
Make and describe patterns with objects and numbers
Understand and use place value to generalize to 1,000,000
o Expanded form: 6783 = 6000 + 700 + 80 + 3
Compute with multidigit numbers
Solve problems involving using multiplication of multidigit by twodigit numbers
Divide multidigit numbers by onedigit divisor
Round multidigit numbers to any place
Build understanding of equivalent fractions and ordering fractions
Compare two fractions with different numerators and different denominators by making common denominators
Add and subtract fractions and mixed numbers with like denominators
Understand the decimal notation for fractions
Compare decimals
Solve problems using measurement conversions
Apply area and perimeter formulas for rectangles
Organize and explain data using a line plot Common Core Standards Parent Handbook – © 2011 California County Superintendents Educational Services Association 17
Understand and measure angles
Draw and identify lines and angles
Describe and sort shapes by their lines and angles
Recognize lines of symmetry Common Core Standards Parent Handbook – © 2011 California County Superintendents Educational Services Association 18 Grade 5 Overview  Mathematics Fifth grade students finalize fluency with multidigit addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. They apply their understanding of fractions to the addition and subtraction of fractions with unlike denominators, the concept of fraction multiplication and division, and decimal addition and subtraction. They analyze numeric patterns and relationships and graph ordered pairs on a coordinate plane. Students build on their understanding of geometry by recognizing attributes of geometrical shapes and calculating inside angle measurement and area of triangles and parallelograms.
Write and interpret numerical expressions using parentheses, brackets, or braces
o “Add 8 and 7, then multiply by 2” is 2(8 + 7)
Express a whole number (2 – 50) as a product of its prime factors
Describe more complex patterns by seeing the change
Understand the place value system from thousandths to millions
Fluently multiply multidigit numbers using the standard algorithm
Divide multidigit numbers by twodigit divisors
Read, write, and compare decimals to the thousandths
Round decimals to any place
Compute with multidigit whole numbers and numbers with decimals to the hundredths
Add and subtract fractions with unlike denominators
Multiply fractions and mixed numbers Common Core Standards Parent Handbook – © 2011 California County Superintendents Educational Services Association 19
Divide unit fractions by whole numbers and whole numbers by unit fractions
Convert measurements and use in problem solving
o 0.05 m = 5 cm or 2.5 feet = 30 inches
Organize and explain data using a line plot
Understand and find the volume of rectangular prisms
Analyze number patterns
Graph points on a coordinate graph
Show a graph with an x and y axis with several points labeled by their coordinates
Sort twodimensional shapes into categories based on their properties
Know what makes rectangles, parallelograms, and trapezoids different
Know the inside sum of the angles of a triangle (180 degrees) and a quadrilateral (360 degrees)
Be able to find the area of a triangle and parallelogram by knowing and understanding the formula for area of these shapes Common Core Standards Parent Handbook – © 2011 California County Superintendents Educational Services Association 20 Grade 6 Overview  Mathematics Sixth grade students use their knowledge of multiplication and division to solve ratio and rate problems. They finalize their understanding of division of fractions and begin the study of negative integers. They understand the use of variables in mathematical expressions, write expressions and equations that correspond to situations, and use expressions and equations to solve problems. Students begin the study of probability and statistics and use their geometrical foundations to solve problems involving area, surface area, and volume.
Understand ratio concepts and use ratio reasoning to solve problems
Understand unit rate
Find a percent of a quantity
Divide fractions by fractions
Fluently compute with multidigit numbers and multidigit decimals
Find common factors and multiples of numbers
Find the greatest common factor and least common multiple of two whole numbers
Use understanding of positive numbers to understand rational numbers
Understand positive and negative integers and be able to locate on a fourquadrant coordinate plane
Order rational numbers
Understand absolute value
Add and subtract integers
Apply properties of operations to add and subtract rational numbers
Use understanding of arithmetic to solve one variable equations and inequalities
Write expressions and equations to describe real world situations using variables
Write and solve equations with whole number exponents
Write an inequality to describe a real world or mathematical problem Common Core Standards Parent Handbook – © 2011 California County Superintendents Educational Services Association 21
Represent and explain relationships between dependent and independent variables
Solve real world problems involving area, surface area, and volume
Draw (freehand, with ruler and protractor and with technology) geometric shapes when given specific conditions
Know the formulas for area and circumference of a circle
Ask a statistical question (How old are the students in my school?), collect and organize the data on a line plot, graph, histogram, dot plot, box plot, etc.
Describe and summarize data by noticing the center, spread, and overall shape
Display numerical data on a number line including dot plots, histograms, and box plots Common Core Standards Parent Handbook – © 2011 California County Superintendents Educational Services Association 22 Grade 7 Overview  Mathematics Seventh grade students deepen their understanding of proportional relationships to solve complicated problems. They extend their understanding of rational numbers to include computation (add, subtract, multiply, and divide). Irrational numbers are introduced in seventh grade. Algebraic foundations are practiced and extended. Students continue to extend their understanding of probability and statistics by describing populations based on sampling, and investigate chance to develop, use, and evaluate probability models.
Use proportional relationships to solve multistep operation and percent problems
o If a person walks ½ mile in each ¼ hour, what is her speed per hour?
Compute unit rates
Add, subtract, multiply, and divide rational numbers
Know irrational numbers (numbers that are not rational) and approximate them with rational numbers
o The decimal of √2 (an irrational number) is 1.4142435623. Understand that √2 is between 1 and 2, then between 1.4 and 1.5, and explain how to continue on to get better approximations
Use properties of operations to solve algebraic equations
Use square root and cube root symbols to represent solutions to equations
Evaluate square root and cube roots (of small perfect square roots and cube roots)
Know that √2 is irrational
Use numbers multiplied by a power of ten to estimate very large or very small quantities (the population of the United States is 3 x 108)
Add, subtract, factor, and expand linear expressions
Construct simple equations and inequalities to solve problems
Draw, construct, and describe geometrical figures and describe the relationships between them
Solve problems involving angle measure, area, surface area, and volume (cylinders, cones, and spheres)
Know formulas for volumes of cones, cylinders, and spheres
Know the formulas for area and circumference of a circle
Use random sampling to describe and compare populations Common Core Standards Parent Handbook – © 2011 California County Superintendents Educational Services Association 23
Find, calculate, and explain the probability of a chance event
o For example, if a student is selected from a class, find the probability that Jane will be selected and the probability that a girl will be selected.
o Or if 40% of donors have type A blood, what is the probability that it will take at least 4 donors to find one with type A blood? Common Core Standards Parent Handbook – © 2011 California County Superintendents Educational Services Association 24 Grade 8 Options  Mathematics California acknowledges that the goal for 8th grade students is Algebra 1. However, not all 8th grade students have the necessary prerequisite skills for Algebra 1. Therefore, California adopted standards that have been arranged into 2 sets for 8th grade. The first set describes standards for Algebra 1 and the second set is the grade 8 standards published in the Common Core document. Each set of standards prepares students for the rigor of high school mathematics. Neither set is considered below appropriate grade level mathematics. Common Core Standards Parent Handbook – © 2011 California County Superintendents Educational Services Association 25 Grade 8 Algebra 1 Overview Eighth grade Algebra 1 students begin their study of Algebra by analyzing and solving equations, including linear equations, inequalities, systems of equations and polynomials. Algebra and geometry knowledge combine to define, compare and solve more complicated functions. Students prove simple geometric theorems algebraically.
Extend the properties of exponents to rational exponents
Work with radicals and integer exponents
Use similar triangles to explain that the slope is the same between any two points on a line
Understand the connections between proportional relationships, lines, and linear equations
Perform operations with numbers expressed in scientific notation Common Core Standards Parent Handbook – © 2011 California County Superintendents Educational Services Association 26
Understand y = mx + b describes a line that intercepts the vertical axis
Analyze and solve linear equations and pairs of simultaneous linear equations
Interpret the structure of expressions (terms, factors, coefficients)
Write expressions in equivalent forms to solve problems
Perform arithmetic operations on polynomials
Create equations that describe numbers or relationships
Create equations in two or more variables
Solve equations and inequalities with one variable
Solve systems of equations in two variables Common Core Standards Parent Handbook – © 2011 California County Superintendents Educational Services Association 27
Graph and understand solutions to linear equalities and inequalities in two variables
Solve quadratic equations with one variable
Represent and solve equations and inequalities graphically
Define, evaluate, and compare functions
Use functions to model relationships between quantities
Analyze and graph functions
Build and write a function that models a relationship between two quantities
Build new functions from existing functions
Understand congruence and similarity
Understand and apply the Pythagorean Theorem
Use coordinates to prove simple geometric theorems algebraically
Investigate patterns of association in sets of data
Construct and interpret scatter plots
Use and know simple aspects of a logical argument
Use properties of the number system to judge the validity of results, to justify each step of a procedure, and to prove or disprove statements Common Core Standards Parent Handbook – © 2011 California County Superintendents Educational Services Association 28 Grade 8 Overview  Mathematics Eighth grade students deepen their understanding of rational and irrational numbers. Algebraically, students compute with radicals and exponents, solve linear equations and define, solve, compare, and graph functions. In geometry, seventh grade students understand and use the Pythagorean Theorem and solve problems involving volumes of cylinders, cones, and spheres.
Understand rational and irrational numbers
Work with radicals and integer exponents
o For example, estimate the population of the United States as 3 x 108 and the population of the world as 7 x 109, and determine that the world population is more than 20 times larger.
Understand the connection between proportional relationships, lines, and linear equations and be able to graph them
Understand that the unit rate of a proportional relationship is the slope of the graph
Use similar triangles to explain slope and understand y = mx + b
Analyze and solve linear equations with one variable and pairs of simultaneous linear equations
Define, solve, and compare functions
Understand that a function is a rule and the ordered pairs are input and output
Build and use functions to model relationships
Understand congruence and similarity
Understand, use, and apply the Pythagorean Theorem
Investigate patterns of sets of data Common Core Standards Parent Handbook – © 2011 California County Superintendents Educational Services Association 29
Construct and interpret scatter plots
Solve problems involving volumes of cylinders, cones, and spheres
Construct and interpret scatter plots Common Core Standards Parent Handbook – © 2011 California County Superintendents Educational Services Association 30 Grade K Overview  English Language Arts Kindergarten students work with prompting and support to interact with literature or informational text by asking and answering questions and identifying details and main events. Students know and can name all letters, and they can print many letters. They can read common words and draw, tell or write about a book. Reading With prompting and support:
Ask and answer questions about a reading selection
Identify characters, setting, and main events in a story
Retell stories, including details
Reading: Foundational Skills
Understand basic print features
o Left to right
o Top to bottom
o Page by page
Recognize and name all uppercase and lowercase letters
Recognize that spoken words are made up of syllables and sounds
Recognize and produce rhyming words
Blend two or three sounds together to make a recognizable word
Use phonics when reading words
Say the most frequent sounds for each consonant and vowel
Read common highfrequency words by sight
o The, of, to, you, is
Writing
Draw, tell, or write about a book
Draw, tell, or write about events in the order they happened
Speaking and Listening
Participate in discussions
o Listen to others
o Take turns speaking
Follow oral directions
Ask and answer questions
Describe people, places, things, and events, providing detail
Language
Print many uppercase and lowercase letters
Use capitalization, punctuation, and spelling
Identify new meanings for familiar words
o Knowing duck is a bird, and learning the verb form of to duck Common Core Standards Parent Handbook – © 2011 California County Superintendents Educational Services Association 31
Sort common objects into categories
o Shapes, food Common Core Standards Parent Handbook – © 2011 California County Superintendents Educational Services Association 32 Grade 1 Overview  English Language Arts First grade students independently interact with literature or informational text by asking and answering questions and identifying details and main events. They can read aloud accurately and with expression. First grade students can print all letters and can write about events, topics, and opinions. Reading
Ask and answer questions about details in a reading selection
Retell stories, including details
Explain the differences between books that tell stories and books that give information
With prompting and support, read first grade informational texts
Reading: Foundational Skills
Understand the organization and basic features of print
o Left to right
o Top to bottom
o Page by page
Recognize features of a sentence
o Capitalization
o Ending punctuation
Understand spoken words, syllables, and sounds
Understand phonics and word analysis
o Know that every syllable must have a vowel sound
Read regularly spelled one and twosyllable words
Read aloud with accuracy and expression
Writing
Write opinion pieces that include an opinion and the reason for the opinion
Write informative pieces that name a topic, supply facts, and provide closure
Write narratives about two or more events in the correct order; include details
Speaking and Listening
Follow rules for discussions by building on what others are saying and by asking questions
Follow simple twostep directions
Speak in complete sentences
Language
Use correct grammar
Print all uppercase and lowercase letters
Use correct capitalization, punctuation, and spelling
Determine meaning of unknown words by looking at parts of the word and other words in the sentence
Sort words into categories and define words by key attributes
o A tiger is a large cat with stripes Common Core Standards Parent Handbook – © 2011 California County Superintendents Educational Services Association 33 Grade 2 Overview  English Language Arts Second grade students accurately read and understand literature and informational text. They use correct grammar, capitalization, punctuation, and spelling. They can plan and deliver a presentation about a story or experience. Reading
Retell folktales, including a central lesson
Explain how the author uses reasons to support specific points in a text
Identify the main topic and focus
Read and understand literature and informational texts
Reading: Foundational Skills
Know and use phonics and word analysis skills
o Read words with common prefixes and suffixes (e.g., re_, un_, _less)
Distinguish long and short vowels
Read regularly spelled twosyllable words with long vowels
Read accurately and with understanding
Writing
Write opinion pieces that connect the opinion and reasons using linking words
o Because, and, also
Write informative pieces that provide a topic, facts, definitions, and a conclusion
Write narrative pieces that include details to describe actions, thoughts, and feelings
Produce writing that is developed, focused, and organized
Write routinely over extended time frames and shorter time frames
Speaking and Listening
Participate in conversations with peers and adults in small and larger groups
Recall and describe key ideas and details from something read aloud
Give and follow three and fourstep oral directions
Plan and deliver a presentation about a story or experience
Language
Use correct grammar
Create readable documents with legible print
Use correct capitalization, punctuation, and spelling
Use a variety of methods to determine word meaning
Use individual words to determine the meaning of compound words, which are two words joined to form a new word Common Core Standards Parent Handbook – © 2011 California County Superintendents Educational Services Association 34 Common Core Standards Parent Handbook – © 2011 California County Superintendents Educational Services Association 35 Grade 3 Overview  English Language Arts Third grade students interact with literature and informational text by comparing and contrasting stories, discussing a point of view and comparing it with the author’s, and describing a series of events, ideas, or concepts. Along with their reading, third grade writing is more sophisticated. Students produce developed, focused, organized, and edited work. In writing informational pieces, they include charts or graphs and supply facts. Reading
Describe how characters’ actions contribute to the events
Compare and contrast stories
Independently read and understand gradelevel literature
Describe a series of events, ideas, or concepts
Discuss a point of view and compare it to that of the author
Reading: Foundational Skills
Use gradelevel phonics and word analysis skills
o Read words with multiple syllables, e.g., mosquito, puppeteer
Know the meanings of most common prefixes and suffixes
Read accurately and with understanding
Writing
Write opinion pieces that include a chart or graph and list reasons that support the opinion
Write informative pieces that name the topic, supply facts, and use linking words and phrases
Write narrative pieces that introduce a narrator and characters, and write about what the characters say, think, and feel
Produce writing that is developed, focused, organized, and edited
Speaking and Listening
Follow rules for discussions by building on what others are saying
Recall ideas and details from something read aloud
Plan and deliver an informative presentation
Speak clearly and in complete sentences
Language
Use correct grammar
Write legibly in cursive or joined italics; use margins and spacing
Choose words and phrases for effect
Use a variety of sentence types
Capitalize appropriate words
Correctly add suffixes to base words
o Sitting, smiled, cries
Recognize the differences between spoken and written standard English Common Core Standards Parent Handbook – © 2011 California County Superintendents Educational Services Association 36 Grade 4 Overview  English Language Arts Fourth grade students read longer words and use roots, prefixes, and suffixes to determine the meanings of unknown words. They use details and examples in the text to determine the main idea and describe a character, setting, or event. Students produce writing that is developed, focused, organized, and edited. They group related ideas in paragraphs and sections, and provide a conclusion. Fourth grade students know when to use formal English, and when informal English is appropriate. Reading
Use details and examples in the text to determine the main idea and describe a character, setting, or event
Use first person (e.g., I said) and third person (e.g., She said) narrative styles
Read and understand literature and informational texts
Reading: Foundational Skills
Use gradelevel phonics and word analysis skills
o Roots, prefixes, and suffixes
Read words with multiple syllables
Read with accuracy and understanding
Writing
Write opinion pieces that include a conclusion related to the opinion
Write informative pieces that group related ideas in paragraphs and sections, and provide a conclusion
Write narratives that introduce a narrator and characters; write about what the characters say, feel, and think; use sensory details
o Sight, sound, scent
Produce writing that is developed, focused, organized, and edited
Write a short research piece
Speaking and Listening
Participate in discussions, carrying out assigned roles
Paraphrase portions of information presented aloud
Plan and deliver a presentation based on a personal experience
Speak clearly, in complete sentences, and at an appropriate pace
Language
Use correct grammar
Use complete sentences
Correctly use frequently confused words
o To, two, too
o There, their, they’re
Use correct capitalization, punctuation, and spelling
Spell gradelevel words correctly
Know when to use formal English and when informal English is appropriate Common Core Standards Parent Handbook – © 2011 California County Superintendents Educational Services Association 37 Grade 5 Overview  English Language Arts Fifth grade students build on their ability to read longer words, using roots, prefixes, and suffixes to determine the meaning of unknown words. Students explain how an author supports points in a text. They use quotes accurately when referring to the text. Students keep the audience in mind and include a clear sequence of events when writing. Students listen to a speaker or media source and identify reasons and evidence provided to support particular points. They identify and discuss misleading ideas. Reading
Quote accurately when referring to text
Determine the main ideas and summarize the text
Compare and contrast texts
Explain how an author uses reason or evidence to support points in a text
Reading: Foundational Skills
Use gradelevel phonics and word analysis skills
o Roots, prefixes, and suffixes
Read with accuracy and fluency
Writing
Write opinion pieces that support a point of view with reasons and information
Write informative texts that share ideas and information
Write narratives that use related descriptive details and a clear sequences of events
Write clearly and with a purpose; keep the audience in mind
Use technology to publish writing; type two pages in a single sitting
Speaking and Listening
Summarize information presented
Identify reasons and evidence a speaker or media source provides to support particular points
Identify and discuss misleading ideas
Plan and deliver a speech
Deliver a memorized poem or section of a speech
Use expression and gestures
Language
Use correct grammar
Use verb tenses correctly
o Yesterday I walked
o Today I walk
o Tomorrow I will walk
Use correct capitalization, punctuation, and spelling
Use punctuation to separate items in a series/list
Use underlining, quotation marks, or italics in a title
Vary sentence length and style
Compare and contrast styles used in literature
Use a variety of methods to determine the meaning of an unknown word Common Core Standards Parent Handbook – © 2011 California County Superintendents Educational Services Association 38 Grade 6 Overview  English Language Arts Sixth grade students provide a summary of reading without personal opinions or judgments. They write a variety of pieces, including research projects, and use technology to publish the work. When presenting, students place descriptions, facts, and details in a logical order. Reading
Determine main idea and supporting details
Provide a summary without personal opinions or judgments
Determine how the structure of a text contributes to the main idea
Determine an author’s point of view
Explain how the point of view of the narrator or speaker is developed
Distinguish among fact, opinion, reasoned judgment, and speculation in a text
Read and understand gradelevel literary and nonfiction texts
Writing
Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence
Write informative texts that examine a topic and convey ideas
Write narratives that include relevant descriptive details and wellstructured event sequences
Conduct short research projects and refocus the inquiry as needed
Use technology to produce and publish writing; type three pages in a single sitting
Speaking and Listening
Participate in discussions, both oneonone and with a group
Find claims supported by reasons and evidence in a speaker’s argument
Plan and deliver an informative presentation
Place descriptions, facts, and details in a logical order when presenting
Language
Use correct grammar and language
Use correct capitalization, punctuation, and spelling
Use a variety of methods to determine the meaning of unknown words
Distinguish among words with similar meanings
o Stingy, economical, thrifty Common Core Standards Parent Handbook – © 2011 California County Superintendents Educational Services Association 39 Grade 7 Overview  English Language Arts Seventh grade students read and understand gradelevel nonfiction literature. They compare and contrast fictional and historical accounts. Students write a variety of pieces, creating organized arguments to support claims. When writing research projects, students collect additional questions for further research. They use eye contact, appropriate volume, and clear pronunciation when presenting. Reading
Explain what the text says and draw conclusions
Determine the main ideas of a text and how they develop
Analyze how the elements or setting of a story shape the plot
Analyze how an author develops and contrasts his or her own point of view with those of characters or the narrator
Analyze the structure of text
o Graphics, headers, and captions
Compare and contrast fictional and historical accounts
Assess the extent to which the reasoning and evidence in a text support the author’s claims
Read and understand gradelevel literary and nonfiction texts
Writing
Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence
Write informative texts that examine a topic and convey ideas
Write narratives that include relevant descriptive details and wellstructured event sequences
Conduct research projects and demonstrate an understanding of the subject under investigation
Use technology to produce and publish writing; include references and links to sources
Speaking and Listening
Participate in discussions, both oneonone and with a group
Evaluate the reasoning and relevance of evidence made in a speaker’s argument
Plan and present an argument
Use eye contact, appropriate volume, and clear pronunciation when presenting
Language
Use correct grammar and language
Use correct capitalization, punctuation, and spelling
Use a variety of methods to determine the meaning of unknown words
Use relationships between words to better understand words
o Synonym: a word that means the same
o Antonym: a word that means the opposite Common Core Standards Parent Handbook – © 2011 California County Superintendents Educational Services Association 40 Grade 8 Overview  English Language Arts Eighth grade students interact a great deal with literature and informational text. They use evidence from selections to analyze characters’ points of view and how the author uses dialogue. Students cite textual evidence to support their analysis of text and identify how the structure contributes to the meaning and style of each text. In writing, students show relationships among experiences and events. Reading
Use evidence when drawing conclusions from the reading
Determine a theme and its relationship to the characters, setting, and plot
Analyze how dialogue affects the outcome of a text
Identify how the structure contributes to the meaning and style of each text
Analyze how the points of view of the characters and the reader create effects such as suspense or humor
Determine an author’s response to conflicting viewpoints
Evaluate an author’s premises or hypotheses by corroborating or challenging conclusions with other sources of information
Read and understand gradelevel literary and nonfiction texts
Writing
Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence
Write informative texts that examine a topic and convey ideas
Write narratives that show the relationships among experiences and events
Conduct research projects and demonstrate an understanding of the subject under investigation
Use technology to produce and publish writing and present relationships between information and ideas
Speaking and Listening
Participate in discussions, oneonone and with a group
Identify when irrelevant evidence is used in a speaker’s claim
Plan and present a narrative
Use eye contact, appropriate volume, and clear pronunciation when presenting
Language
Use correct grammar and language
Use correct capitalization, punctuation, and spelling
Use a variety of methods to determine the meaning of unknown words
Interpret figures of speech
o Verbal irony
o Puns
CCStandards 

